ASTM E45 – Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel
These test methods cover a number of recognized procedures for determining the nonmetallic inclusion content of wrought steel. Macroscopic methods include macroetch, fracture, step-down, and magnetic particle tests. Microscopic methods include five generally accepted systems of examination. In these microscopic methods, inclusions are assigned to a category based on similarities in morphology, and not necessarily on their chemical identity.
Metallographic techniques that allow simple differentiation between morphologically similar inclusions are briefly discussed.
While the methods are primarily intended for rating inclusions, constituents such as carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, borides, and intermetallic phases may be rated using some of the microscopic methods.
In some cases, alloys other than steels may be rated using one or more of these methods; the methods will be described in terms of their use on steels.
inclusion content; steel; macroetch; fracture; step-down; magnetic particle